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100 Words Encountered in

Medicine

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diagnose
She diagnosed the disease as...
diagnosed = determine or identify the nature of a problem or an illness
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lymphocytes
Small lymphocytes are comprised of T cells and B cells.†
lymphocytes = a type of white blood cell that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count, but increases in the presence of infection
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diabetes
He was diagnosed with Type II diabetes.
diabetes = a disease in which the body can't control the amount of sugar in the blood and that is marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
DefinitionGenerally diabetes means:
any of several metabolic disorders characterized by abnormally high glucose levels in the blood and marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
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thoracic
She is a thoracic surgeon.†
thoracic = relating to the chest (thorax)
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normal blood pressure
She has high blood pressure of 170/110.†
high blood pressure = normal for an adult at rest:  120/80
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lipids
Exercise improves the blood lipid levels.†
lipid = fats (oily organic compounds insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents)
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dopamine
Dopamine helps to regulate the brain's pleasure and reward system.†
dopamine = a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain's pleasure and reward system
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serotonin
The drug, ecstasy, triggers the release of serotonin, dopamine and oxytocin in the brain.†
serotonin = a neurotransmitter associated with sleep, depression, and memory
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antibody
The Human Combinatorial Antibody Library consists of some 12 billion human antibodies.†
antibodies = any of a large variety of proteins the body uses to fight infections
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orthopedic
My mother wears orthopedic shoes.†
orthopedic = relating to medical treatment of bones
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biopsy
We were relieved that the biopsy showed the polyp was benign.†
biopsy = removal and examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
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pulmonary
pulmonary disease†
pulmonary = relating to or affecting the lungs
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insulin
Insulin injections are used to treat some forms of diabetes.
insulin = a hormone produced in the pancreas which controls sugar levels in the blood

or:

a hormone replacement medicine used to treat diabetes
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ion
a lithium-ion battery†
ion = an atom or molecule that has acquired an electrical charge by the loss or gain of electrons
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inflammation
inflammation around the wound†
inflammation = swelling, redness, and other body tissue response to injury or infection
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hepatitis
She looks a little yellow, so I want a doctor to test her for hepatitis.†
hepatitis = inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
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bone marrow
The doctor recommended a bone-marrow transplant  because of his liver cancer.†
bone-marrow = the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
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TB
Antibiotic resistant TB is a growing problem.
TB = an infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (sores) in the lungs
DefinitionGenerally TB means:
an infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small sores in the lungs
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embryo
The doctor implanted multiple embryos to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.
embryos = a human in the first eight weeks of pregnancy
DefinitionGenerally embryo means:
an animal organism in the early stages of growth; in humans the first eight weeks of pregnancy (prior to the fetal stage)
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fetus
She thinks that when short of nutrients, the fetus protects the brain at the expense of the heart.†
fetus = an unborn or unhatched vertebrate beyond the early stages of development when the main features of the mature animal are recognizable; in humans beginning at completion of the 8th week of pregnancy and ending at birth
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radiation
Ionizing radiation has enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules.
radiation = particles emitted by nuclear decay (i.e., particles smaller than an atom that are sent out due to radioactivity)
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thyroid
The thyroid is located in front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box).†
thyroid = gland located near the base of the neck that, amongst other things, regulates growth and metabolism
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aorta
He suffered a rupture of the aorta.†
aorta = the large trunk artery that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries that reach all parts of the body
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adverse
She did an impressive job given the adverse circumstances.
adverse = working against one's interests
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contract
as in:
contract the disease
She contracted an STD (sexually transmitted disease).
contracted = acquired (gotten; or picked up)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of contract means:
to get — especially in reference to a disease
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metastasis
They caught the cancer before it metastasized.†
metastasized = the spreading of a disease (especially cancer) to another part of the body
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hypothalamus
The hypothalamus produces the "controlling" hormones.†
hypothalamus = part of the brain, above and attached to the pituitary, responsible for hormone levels which influence such things as appetite, digestion, sexuality, circulation, emotions, and sleep
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peptide
The peptide, CCK, helps to end hunger as you eat.†
peptide = a molecule composed of two or more amino acids
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Medicare
The cost of Medicare is expected to grow enormously because of the increased number of older Americans and the increased number of effective medical treatments developed each year.†
Medicare = a federally administered system of health insurance available to people once they turn 65 years of age (or suffer some kinds of disabilities)
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Medicaid
Medicaid and education make up the bulk of the state budget.†
Medicaid = health care for the needy; a federally and state-funded program
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physiology
Individual physiology plays a major role in weight gain.†
physiology = the branch of biology that studies the functioning of organisms; or an organism's processes and functions
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meningitis
The vaccine protects against some types of meningitis.†
meningitis = infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord (the meninges)
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anterior
He tore his ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and is out for the rest of the season.†
anterior = the front part; or font of the body, or earlier in time
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pathology
The Environmental Protection Agency Administrator has degrees in biology and pathology.
pathology = the study of disease
DefinitionGenerally pathology means:
the study of disease by studying cells and tissues under a microscope; or a disease
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paralysis
She suffers paralysis of her legs.
paralysis = loss of the ability to move
DefinitionGenerally paralysis means:
loss of the ability to move the body or a part of it

or:

inability to act or make a decision
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hemoglobin
The A1C test  measures hemoglobin levels.†
hemoglobin = the oxygen-carrying part of red blood cells
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capillary
a capillary tube†
capillary = a slender tube — especially the smallest blood vessels
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indicate
These maps are drawn with north to the top unless otherwise indicated.
indicated = pointed out (shown)
DefinitionGenerally indicate means:
to show (point out, demonstrate, express, or suggest)
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alkaline
an alkaline battery†
alkaline = having a pH greater than 7 (this is the opposite of acidic)
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morbid
as in:
morbidly obese
Morbid obesity is sometimes defined as being more than 100 pounds above average weight for the same height.
morbid = unhealthy
DefinitionGenerally this sense of morbid means:
unhealthy or related to disease — especially of a serious long-term illness
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vaccine
Researchers are looking for an HIV vaccine.
vaccine = a substance (such as weakened or dead disease-causing microorganism) injected into a person or animal to stimulate the production of antibodies to protect against a disease
DefinitionGenerally vaccine means:
a substance (such as weakened or dead a disease-causing microorganism) injected into a person or animal to stimulate the production of antibodies to protect against a disease
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uterus
She took hormones after having her uterus removed.†
uterus = a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females which can hold a developing fetus
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species
It is an endangered species.
species = a similar group of animals or plants identified as separate from others because they can interbreed with each other
DefinitionGenerally species means:
a similar group of animals or plants identified as separate from others because they can interbreed (create baby animals)  with each other
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histamine
The drug reduces the quantity of histamine in the blood stream.†
histamine = serves many purposes in the body, but is best known for causing allergic reactions
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parasitic
She picked up a parasitic infection while in Africa.
parasitic = from a species that lives in another species and eats from it
DefinitionGenerally parasitic means:
of a species that lives on (or in) another species and eats from it without providing return benefit

or:

a person who lives off others' efforts without providing return benefit to them
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essential
The essential feature of the pen is that it writes so consistently.
essential = absolutely necessary; or of greatest importance
DefinitionGenerally essential means:
absolutely necessary; or of the greatest importance

or:

the defining or most important aspect of something
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chemical element
She memorized the periodic table of chemical elements.†
chemical elements = any material that is composed of only one type of atom; i.e., a substance that cannot be divided or changed into different substances by ordinary chemical methods
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microbe
The book, Microbe Hunters, tells the stories of early heroes of microbiology.†
microbe = a living organism such as a bacterium, or virus that is so small, it can be seen only with a microscope
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virus
The common cold is caused by a virus.
virus = a submicroscopic organism that causes disease (by using the cellular reproductive machinery of the organism it invades)
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bacteria
The infection is caused by a bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics.
bacteria = microorganisms (living creatures so small it takes a microscope to see them) that can both cause disease and be beneficial.
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anatomy
The anatomy of the frog is similar to that of a person.
anatomy = structure of the body
DefinitionGenerally anatomy means:
the medical study of the structure of the body — as in "to study anatomy"

or more rarely:  the structure of a body — as in "a part of the anatomy"

or still more rarely:  any detailed analysis — as in "anatomy of the disaster"
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pediatrics
The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages television-watching for babies under the age of two.†
pediatrics = the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children
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sepsis
Sepsis is usually caused by bacteria, but can also be caused by viruses and fungi.†
sepsis = blood poisoning or poisoning of other tissues by microorganisms or their toxins
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central nervous system
The disease attacks the central nervous system.†
central nervous system = the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
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gynecology
Testing for STDs is not automatically included in a gynecological exam.†
gynecological = the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of women — especially those of the reproductive organs
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typhoid
Typhoid fever infects millions of people annually.
typhoid = a serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by contaminated food or water
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malaria
Malaria is one of the areas of focus for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
malaria = a tropical disease spread by mosquitoes that, while nonexistent in wealthy nations, strikes hundreds of millions of people a year in developing nations — killing over a million each year
DefinitionGenerally malaria means:
a tropical disease spread by mosquitoes that, while nonexistent in wealthy nations, strikes hundreds of millions of people a year in developing nations — killing over a million each year

more technically:  an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
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immune
She is immune to chickenpox because she has been vaccinated.
immune = not susceptible to (not in danger of suffering from)
DefinitionGenerally immune means:
not susceptible to something — especially a disease; i.e., not in danger of suffering from it

or relating to disease resistance
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obstetrician
saw her obstetrician for an exam†
obstetrician = a physician specializing in childbirth
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therapeutic
I asked for a therapeutic massage, but it really hurt.
therapeutic = tending to cure or restore to health
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cardiac
He suffered cardiac arrest.†
cardiac = of or relating to the heart
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electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
The electrocardiogram showed normal progression.†
electrocardiogram = a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
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syndrome
She suffers from Asperger syndrome.
syndrome = a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
DefinitionGenerally syndrome means:
a pattern of symptoms associated with an illness; or any recognizable pattern — especially when undesirable
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anesthesia
The operation requires general anesthesia.†
anesthesia = loss of bodily sensation — especially created intentionally to control pain
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anesthetic
We use a local anesthetic so you won't feel pain, but will remain conscious.
anesthetic = a drug that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations
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ligature
She had ligature marks on her wrists and ankles.†
ligature = something used to tie or bind — especially a surgical thread
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nervous system
The protein is found in the peripheral nervous system.†
nervous system = the body's sensory (feeling) and control (movement) apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
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esophagus
She has esophageal cancer.†
esophageal = the passage food and drink follow between the pharynx and the stomach
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collagen
A collagen injection was used to smooth wrinkles.†
collagen = the main protein of animal connective tissue
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nucleus
They have the nucleus of a good team.
nucleus = the center (in this case, key central members)
DefinitionGenerally nucleus means:
the center (or most important part) of something — such as:
  • physics:  the center of an atom where protons & neutrons reside
  • biology:  the center of a cell where DNA resides
  • sociology:  the closest family (mother/father/children in contrast to the extended family)
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adrenaline
She's an adrenaline junkie. She loves the rush that comes from roller coasters, skydiving, and big waves.
adrenaline = "fight or flight" stimulating hormone
DefinitionGenerally adrenaline means:
"fight or flight" stimulating hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress (making the body feel excited and ready for action)
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pneumonia
A mild case of pneumonia is sometimes referred to as "walking pneumonia."
pneumonia = respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the lungs
DefinitionGenerally pneumonia means:
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the lungs; caused by infectious agents (e.g., viruses or bacteria) or by inhalation of certain irritants
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hookworm
Today, hookworm in humans is fairly rare in the US, but it remains a major problem in developing countries of the tropics and subtropics.
hookworm = an intestinal parasite
DefinitionGenerally hookworm means:
bloodsucking parasite that has hooked mouth parts to fasten to the intestinal wall of humans or other mammals; generally entering the body through the foot or other skin
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anemia
She takes iron supplements to prevent anemia.†
anemia = a deficiency of red blood cells or where red blood cells are deficient in hemoglobin — resulting in fatigue
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anemic
The company has been managing anemic growth.
anemic = lacking vitality
DefinitionGenerally anemic means:
suffering from too few red blood cells

or metaphorically:  lacking vitality
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ALS
Lou Gehrig set the record for most career grand slams before his career was cut short by ALS.†
ALS = a neurological disorder that results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs and results in death (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
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venous
suffers from venous thrombosis (thrombosis is a type of blood clot)†
venous = relating to blood veins
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symposium
I'm excited to attend the symposium on robotics.
symposium = a gathering to discuss a specific subject — generally with shared and breakout sessions in which individual or panels of experts address audiences
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tendon
She ruptured her left Achilles' tendon.†
tendon = a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle to bone
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ligament
She tore a knee ligament and has to miss the rest of the season.†
ligament = a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages
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measles
She never received a measles vaccination, so we'll have to wait 8 to 12 days to find out if she caught it.†
measles = an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
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spinal cord
Her spinal cord was partly severed, so that she is now paralyzed below the waist.†
spinal cord = nerve cells running from the base of the skull to the lower back and enclosed by vertebrae in adults
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trachea
A tube runs from the ventilator box to a slit in his trachea just below the Adam's apple.†
trachea = in vertebrates:  the windpipe (membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi)

or

in invertebrates such as insects and arachnids:  one of the tubules forming the respiratory system
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equivalent
At $50 a share, it is equivalent to about a billion dollars.
equivalent = being equal or essentially equal
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proximal
He was cut in the proximal thumb crease.†
proximal = situated closest to the point of attachment or origin

or toward the midline of the body
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distal
With rare exception the longitudinal incision on the distal forearm heals as a fine line.†
distal = situated farthest from point of attachment or origin

or away from the midline of the body
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diuretic
Asparagus is a natural diuretic.†
diuretic = any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine, which causes the body to get rid of excess water
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femur
His arthritis is so bad there is no cartilage between his femur and tibia.†
femur = the thigh bone (extending from the pelvis to the knee) which is the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton
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thymus
In addition to a primary thymus, mice have multiple smaller thymuses.†
thymuses = a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
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asthma
Asthma is the leading cause of hospitalization in children.
asthma = a common lung disorder characterized by wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and sometimes coughing
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smallpox
Both George Washington and Abraham Lincoln survived their smallpox infections.†
smallpox = a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
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duodenum
Peptic ulcers, commonly known as stomach ulcers, are actually located in the duodenum.†
duodenum = the first part of the small intestine which extends from the stomach
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dorsal
He was cut on the dorsal side of the thumb.†
dorsal = the back (spinal cord) side
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ventral
He was cut on the ventral side of the thumb.†
ventral = the belly (opposite of dorsal) side
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tibia
The gymnast has bone spurs that cause extreme pain by digging into her tibia.†
tibia = the shin bone (running from the knee to the ankle)
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plasma
as in:
The Red Cross delivered plasma
Most people have about 5 liters of blood, 3 liters of which is plasma.
plasma = the liquid portion of blood
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geology
He majored in geology and went on to become expert at finding oil.
geology = a science that deals with the earth's physical structure and processes that affect it
DefinitionGenerally geology means:
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

or more rarely:

the rocks, minerals, and rock formations of an area
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sternum
During the heart transplant, the surgeon used a saw to cut through his sternum.†
sternum = the breastbone
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aqueous
an aqueous solution†
aqueous = relating to water (similar to, or made from/with/by)
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endemic
The spotted owl is endemic to old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest.†
endemic = commonly found in a particular place — (especially organisms in a geographic location or diseases amongst a particular group)
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† 
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