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used in War and Peace

3 meanings, 102 uses
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1  —8 uses as in:
I assume it's true
to accept something as true without proof
  • At the basis of the works of all the modern historians from Gibbon to Buckle, despite their seeming disagreements and the apparent novelty of their outlooks, lie those two old, unavoidable assumptions. [(1) nations guided by individual men, and (2) the existence of a known aim]
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (74% in)
assumptions = things accepted as true (without proof)

(editor's note:  The suffix "-tions", converts a verb into a plural noun that denotes results of the verb. Typically, there is a slight change in the ending of the root verb, as in actions, illustrations, and observations.)
Other Uses (with this meaning)
  • What reason was there for assuming any probability of an uprising in the city?
    Book Eleven — 1812 (57% in)
  • Assuming that she did go down to see him, Princess Mary imagined the words he would say to her and what she would say to him, and these words sometimes seemed undeservedly cold and then to mean too much.
    Book Twelve — 1812 (29% in)
  • This assumption is all the more natural and inevitable because, watching the movement of history, we see that every year and with each new writer, opinion as to what is good for mankind changes; so that what once seemed good, ten years later seems bad, and vice versa.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • But as it is in no way proved that the aim of humanity does consist in freedom, equality, enlightenment, or civilization, and as the connection of the people with the rulers and enlighteners of humanity is only based on the arbitrary assumption that the collective will of the people is always transferred to the men whom we have noticed, it happens that the activity of the millions who migrate, burn houses, abandon agriculture, and destroy one another never is expressed in the account...
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (83% in)
  • On the one side reflection shows that the expression of a man's will—his words—are only part of the general activity expressed in an event, as for instance in a war or a revolution, and so without assuming an incomprehensible, supernatural force—a miracle—one cannot admit that words can be the immediate cause of the movements of millions of men.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (85% in)
  • However inaccessible to us may be the cause of the expression of will in any action, our own or another's, the first demand of reason is the assumption of and search for a cause, for without a cause no phenomenon is conceivable.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (96% in)
  • That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (98% in)

There are no more uses of "assume" flagged with this meaning in War and Peace.

Typical Usage  (best examples)
Dictionary / pronunciation — Google®Dictionary / more samples — Oxford® USDictionary list —®
2  —7 uses as in:
She assumed a false identity
to take on (adopt, wear, strike a pose or appearance of) — often while pretending or disguising
  • As with everyone, her face assumed a forced unnatural expression as soon as she looked in a glass.
    Book One — 1805 (82% in)
assumed = took on (the appearance of)
Other Uses (with this meaning)
  • "I am glad I was able to do you a service, my dear Anna Mikhaylovna," said Prince Vasili, arranging his lace frill, and in tone and manner, here in Moscow to Anna Mikhaylovna whom he had placed under an obligation, assuming an air of much greater importance than he had done in Petersburg at Anna Scherer's reception.
    Book One — 1805 (44% in)
  • The eldest princess paused in her reading and silently stared at him with frightened eyes; the second assumed precisely the same expression; while the youngest, the one with the mole, who was of a cheerful and lively disposition, bent over her frame to hide a smile probably evoked by the amusing scene she foresaw.
    Book One — 1805 (46% in)
  • "Come here a bit," said she, assuming a soft high tone of voice.
    Book One — 1805 (54% in)
  • Assuming quite the pose of a society woman (heaven knows when and where she had learned it) she talked with her partner, fanning herself and smiling over the fan.
    Book One — 1805 (60% in)
  • "However, if you command it, Your Majesty," said Kutuzov, lifting his head and again assuming his former tone of a dull, unreasoning, but submissive general.
    Book Three — 1805 (82% in)
  • But something had to be decided, and these conversations around him which were assuming too free a character must be stopped.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (7% in)

There are no more uses of "assume" flagged with this meaning in War and Peace.

Typical Usage  (best examples)
Dictionary / pronunciation — Google®Dictionary / more samples — Oxford® USDictionary list —®
3  —2 uses as in:
assumed into heaven
to take up or receive someone into heaven
  • The Emperor entered the Cathedral of the Assumption.
    Book Nine — 1812 (90% in)
assumption = to take up or receive someone into heaven

(editor's note:  Many Catholic churches have a similar name which refers to a biblical incident involving Mary, the mother of Jesus.)
  • On Sunday morning Marya Dmitrievna invited her visitors to Mass at her parish church—the Church of the Assumption built over the graves of victims of the plague.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (54% in)

There are no more uses of "assume" flagged with this meaning in War and Peace.

Typical Usage  (best examples)
Dictionary / pronunciation — Google®Dictionary / more samples — Oxford® USDictionary list —®Google® ImagesWikipedia® Article
?  —85 uses
exact meaning not specified
  • This is what historians of the first class say—those who assume the unconditional transference of the people's will.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (84% in)
  • As she named the Empress, Anna Pavlovna's face suddenly assumed an expression of profound and sincere devotion and respect mingled with sadness, and this occurred every time she mentioned her illustrious patroness.
    Book One — 1805 (3% in)
  • Between ourselves" (and her face assumed its melancholy expression), "he was mentioned at Her Majesty's and you were pitied...."
    Book One — 1805 (3% in)
  • The Italian's face instantly changed and assumed an offensively affected, sugary expression, evidently habitual to him when conversing with women.
    Book One — 1805 (10% in)
  • All the affectation of interest she had assumed had left her kindly and tear-worn face and it now expressed only anxiety and fear.
    Book One — 1805 (11% in)
  • Prince Andrew shook himself as if waking up, and his face assumed the look it had had in Anna Pavlovna's drawing room.
    Book One — 1805 (20% in)
  • Her beautiful eyes glanced askance at her husband's face, and her own assumed the timid, deprecating expression of a dog when it rapidly but feebly wags its drooping tail.
    Book One — 1805 (22% in)
  • "Why do you say this young man is so rich?" asked the countess, turning away from the girls, who at once assumed an air of inattention.
    Book One — 1805 (32% in)
  • "I know the will was made, but I also know that it is invalid; and you, mon cousin, seem to consider me a perfect fool," said the princess with the expression women assume when they suppose they are saying something witty and stinging.
    Book One — 1805 (66% in)
  • —perhaps both, but evidently he did not wish to be seen in that mood, for hearing footsteps in the passage he hurriedly unclasped his hands, stopped at a table as if tying the cover of the small box, and assumed his usual tranquil and impenetrable expression.
    Book One — 1805 (94% in)
  • The officer evidently had complete control of his face, and while Kutuzov was turning managed to make a grimace and then assume a most serious, deferential, and innocent expression.
    Book Two — 1805 (7% in)
  • Several of those present smiled at Zherkov's words, expecting one of his usual jokes, but noticing that what he was saying redounded to the glory of our arms and of the day's work, they assumed a serious expression, though many of them knew that what he was saying was a lie devoid of any foundation.
    Book Two — 1805 (97% in)
  • Prince Vasili frowned, twisting his mouth, his cheeks quivered and his face assumed the coarse, unpleasant expression peculiar to him.
    Book Three — 1805 (14% in)
  • She met Prince Vasili with that playful manner often employed by lively chatty people, and consisting in the assumption that between the person they so address and themselves there are some semi-private, long-established jokes and amusing reminiscences, though no such reminiscences really exist—just as none existed in this case.
    Book Three — 1805 (23% in)
  • Although in female society Anatole usually assumed the role of a man tired of being run after by women, his vanity was flattered by the spectacle of his power over these three women.
    Book Three — 1805 (28% in)
  • When the reading which lasted more than an hour was over, Langeron again brought his snuffbox to rest and, without looking at Weyrother or at anyone in particular, began to say how difficult it was to carry out such a plan in which the enemy's position was assumed to be known, whereas it was perhaps not known, since the enemy was in movement.
    Book Three — 1805 (66% in)
  • He remembered the expression Dolokhov's face assumed in his moments of cruelty, as when tying the policeman to the bear and dropping them into the water, or when he challenged a man to a duel without any reason, or shot a post-boy's horse with a pistol.
    Book Four — 1806 (32% in)
  • "Where would I not go at the countess' command!" said Denisov, who at the Rostovs' had jocularly assumed the role of Natasha's knight.
    Book Four — 1806 (72% in)
  • When conversation turned on her husband Helene assumed a dignified expression, which with characteristic tact she had acquired though she did not understand its significance.
    Book Five — 1806-07 (25% in)
  • ...Speranski, either because he appreciated the other's capacity or because he considered it necessary to win him to his side, showed off his dispassionate calm reasonableness before Prince Andrew and flattered him with that subtle flattery which goes hand in hand with self-assurance and consists in a tacit assumption that one's companion is the only man besides oneself capable of understanding the folly of the rest of mankind and the reasonableness and profundity of one's own ideas.
    Book Six — 1808-10 (19% in)
  • "Well, what is it tonight?" said the mother, having arranged her pillows and waited until Natasha, after turning over a couple of times, had settled down beside her under the quilt, spread out her arms, and assumed a serious expression.
    Book Six — 1808-10 (47% in)
  • Only then did she remember how she must behave at a ball, and tried to assume the majestic air she considered indispensable for a girl on such an occasion.
    Book Six — 1808-10 (54% in)
  • She could not assume that pose, which would have made her ridiculous, and she moved on almost fainting from excitement and trying with all her might to conceal it.
    Book Six — 1808-10 (54% in)
  • "A wonderful talent!" he said to Prince Andrew, and Magnitski immediately assumed a pose and began reciting some humorous verses in French which he had composed about various well-known Petersburg people.
    Book Six — 1808-10 (68% in)
  • To leave family, home, and all the cares of worldly welfare, in order without clinging to anything to wander in hempen rags from place to place under an assumed name, doing no one any harm but praying for all—for those who drive one away as well as for those who protect one: higher than that life and truth there is no life or truth!
    Book Six — 1808-10 (99% in)
  • With Sonya's help and the maid's, Natasha got the glass she held into the right position opposite the other; her face assumed a serious expression and she sat silent.
    Book Seven — 1810-11 (93% in)
  • Natasha suddenly shrank into herself and involuntarily assumed an offhand air which alienated Princess Mary still more.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (33% in)
  • Mademoiselle George, with her bare, fat, dimpled arms, and a red shawl draped over one shoulder, came into the space left vacant for her, and assumed an unnatural pose.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (58% in)
  • Having looked in a mirror, and standing before Dolokhov in the same pose he had assumed before it, he lifted a glass of wine.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (77% in)
  • He did not know that Natasha's soul was overflowing with despair, shame, and humiliation, and that it was not her fault that her face happened to assume an expression of calm dignity and severity.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (86% in)
  • His face quivered and immediately assumed a vindictive expression.
    Book Eight — 1811-12 (94% in)
  • A deed done is irrevocable, and its result coinciding in time with the actions of millions of other men assumes an historic significance.
    Book Nine — 1812 (3% in)
  • Each of the three armies had its own commander in chief, but there was no supreme commander of all the forces, and the Emperor did not assume that responsibility himself.
    Book Nine — 1812 (9% in)
  • Though it was quite incomprehensible why he should be King of Naples, he was called so, and was himself convinced that he was so, and therefore assumed a more solemn and important air than formerly.
    Book Nine — 1812 (15% in)
  • Then suddenly, as if remembering his royal dignity, Murat solemnly drew himself up, assumed the pose in which he had stood at his coronation, and, waving his right arm, said: "I won't detain you longer, General.
    Book Nine — 1812 (16% in)
  • It was this: the Emperor did not assume the title of commander in chief, but disposed of all the armies; the men around him were his assistants.
    Book Nine — 1812 (37% in)
  • Everything was assumed to be possible for Napoleon, they expected him from every side, and invoked his terrible name to shatter each other's proposals.
    Book Nine — 1812 (50% in)
  • But when he had gone into another room, to which the countess hurriedly followed him, he assumed a grave air and thoughtfully shaking his head said that though there was danger, he had hopes of the effect of this last medicine and one must wait and see, that the malady was chiefly mental, but....
    Book Nine — 1812 (68% in)
  • ...from between the backs of those in front he caught glimpses of an open space with a strip of red cloth spread out on it; but just then the crowd swayed back—the police in front were pushing back those who had pressed too close to the procession: the Emperor was passing from the palace to the Cathedral of the Assumption—and Petya unexpectedly received such a blow on his side and ribs and was squeezed so hard that suddenly everything grew dim before his eyes and he lost consciousness.
    Book Nine — 1812 (89% in)
  • While the service was proceeding in the Cathedral of the Assumption—it was a combined service of prayer on the occasion of the Emperor's arrival and of thanksgiving for the conclusion of peace with the Turks—the crowd outside spread out and hawkers appeared, selling kvas, gingerbread, and poppyseed sweets (of which Petya was particularly fond), and ordinary conversation could again be heard.
    Book Nine — 1812 (90% in)
  • "God grant only that Prince Kutuzov assumes real power and does not allow anyone to put a spoke in his wheel," observed Anna Pavlovna.
    Book Ten — 1812 (20% in)
  • Lavrushka, understanding that this was done to perplex him and that Napoleon expected him to be frightened, to gratify his new masters promptly pretended to be astonished and awe-struck, opened his eyes wide, and assumed the expression he usually put on when taken to be whipped.
    Book Ten — 1812 (22% in)
  • She assumed an attitude of prayer, looked at the icons, repeated the words of a prayer, but she could not pray.
    Book Ten — 1812 (24% in)
  • Suddenly his face assumed a subtle expression, he shrugged his shoulders with an air of perplexity.
    Book Ten — 1812 (43% in)
  • The one thing that recalled the patriotic fervor everyone had displayed during the Emperor's stay was the call for contributions of men and money, a necessity that as soon as the promises had been made assumed a legal, official form and became unavoidable.
    Book Ten — 1812 (47% in)
  • With the natural capacity of an Italian for changing the expression of his face at will, he drew nearer to the portrait and assumed a look of pensive tenderness.
    Book Ten — 1812 (71% in)
  • Assuming the negation to refer only to the victory and not to the lunch, M. de Beausset ventured with respectful jocularity to remark that there is no reason for not having lunch when one can get it.
    Book Ten — 1812 (88% in)
  • But however small the units it takes, we feel that to take any unit disconnected from others, or to assume a beginning of any phenomenon, or to say that the will of many men is expressed by the actions of any one historic personage, is in itself false.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (1% in)
  • Whenever I look at my watch and its hands point to ten, I hear the bells of the neighboring church; but because the bells begin to ring when the hands of the clock reach ten, I have no right to assume that the movement of the bells is caused by the position of the hands of the watch.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (2% in)
  • People accustomed to misunderstand or to forget these inevitable conditions of a commander in chief's actions describe to us, for instance, the position of the army at Fili and assume that the commander in chief could, on the first of September, quite freely decide whether to abandon Moscow or defend it; whereas, with the Russian army less than four miles from Moscow, no such question existed.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (5% in)
  • But Helene, like a really great man who can do whatever he pleases, at once assumed her own position to be correct, as she sincerely believed it to be, and that everyone else was to blame.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (12% in)
  • She assumed her dolefully submissive manner and said to her husband: "Listen to me, Count, you have managed matters so that we are getting nothing for the house, and now you wish to throw away all our—all the children's property!
    Book Eleven — 1812 (35% in)
  • But when events assumed their true historical character, when expressing hatred for the French in words proved insufficient, when it was not even possible to express that hatred by fighting a battle, when self-confidence was of no avail in relation to the one question before Moscow, when the whole population streamed out of Moscow as one man, abandoning their belongings and proving by that negative action all the depth of their national feeling, then the role chosen by Rostopchin...
    Book Eleven — 1812 (58% in)
  • His handsome face assumed a melodramatically gentle expression and he held out his hand.
    Book Eleven — 1812 (75% in)
  • Then he recounted an episode in which the husband played the part of the lover, and he—the lover—assumed the role of the husband, as well as several droll incidents from his recollections of Germany, where "shelter" is called Unterkunft and where the husbands eat sauerkraut and the young girls are "too blonde."
    Book Eleven — 1812 (81% in)
  • He liked to talk and he talked well, adorning his speech with terms of endearment and with folk sayings which Pierre thought he invented himself, but the chief charm of his talk lay in the fact that the commonest events—sometimes just such as Pierre had witnessed without taking notice of them—assumed in Karataev's a character of solemn fitness.
    Book Twelve — 1812 (75% in)
  • From that day, as the doctor expressed it, the wasting fever assumed a malignant character, but what the doctor said did not interest Natasha, she saw the terrible moral symptoms which to her were more convincing.
    Book Twelve — 1812 (98% in)
  • Having rolled like a ball in the direction of the impetus given by the whole campaign and by the battle of Borodino, the Russian army—when the strength of that impetus was exhausted and no fresh push was received—assumed the position natural to it.
    Book Thirteen — 1812 (7% in)
  • On Konovnitsyn's handsome, resolute face with cheeks flushed by fever, there still remained for an instant a faraway dreamy expression remote from present affairs, but then he suddenly started and his face assumed its habitual calm and firm appearance.
    Book Thirteen — 1812 (85% in)
  • In spite of the complaints of the French as to the nonobservance of the rules, in spite of the fact that to some highly placed Russians it seemed rather disgraceful to fight with a cudgel and they wanted to assume a pose en quarte or en tierce according to all the rules, and to make an adroit thrust en prime, and so on—the cudgel of the people's war was lifted with all its menacing and majestic strength, and without consulting anyone's tastes or rules and regardless of anything else,...
    Book Fourteen — 1812 (5% in)
  • People have called this kind of war "guerrilla warfare" and assume that by so calling it they have explained its meaning.
    Book Fourteen — 1812 (6% in)
  • This contradiction arises from the fact that military science assumes the strength of an army to be identical with its numbers.
    Book Fourteen — 1812 (7% in)
  • "Well, I am glad to see you," Denisov interrupted him, and his face again assumed its anxious expression.
    Book Fourteen — 1812 (20% in)
  • After the twenty-eighth of October when the frosts began, the flight of the French assumed a still more tragic character, with men freezing, or roasting themselves to death at the campfires, while carriages with people dressed in furs continued to drive past, carrying away the property that had been stolen by the Emperor, kings, and dukes; but the process of the flight and disintegration of the French army went on essentially as before.
    Book Fourteen — 1812 (82% in)
  • Because they could not understand him all these people assumed that it was useless to talk to the old man; that he would never grasp the profundity of their plans, that he would answer with his phrases (which they thought were mere phrases) about a "golden bridge," about the impossibility of crossing the frontier with a crowd of tatterdemalions, and so forth.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (17% in)
  • The war of 1812, besides its national significance dear to every Russian heart, was now to assume another, a European, significance.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (19% in)
  • But the first plunderers were followed by a second and a third contingent, and with increasing numbers plundering became more and more difficult and assumed more definite forms.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (25% in)
  • When it was suggested to him that he should enter the civil service, or when the war or any general political affairs were discussed on the assumption that everybody's welfare depended on this or that issue of events, he would listen with a mild and pitying smile and surprise people by his strange comments.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (35% in)
  • But even if we assume that fifty years ago Alexander I was mistaken in his view of what was good for the people, we must inevitably assume that the historian who judges Alexander will also after the lapse of some time turn out to be mistaken in his view of what is good for humanity.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • But even if we assume that fifty years ago Alexander I was mistaken in his view of what was good for the people, we must inevitably assume that the historian who judges Alexander will also after the lapse of some time turn out to be mistaken in his view of what is good for humanity.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • But let us assume that what is called science can harmonize all contradictions and possesses an unchanging standard of good and bad by which to try historic characters and events; let us say that Alexander could have done everything differently; let us say that with guidance from those who blame him and who profess to know the ultimate aim of the movement of humanity, he might have arranged matters according to the program his present accusers would have given him—of nationality,...
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • Let us assume that this program was possible and had then been formulated, and that Alexander had acted on it.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • If we assume as the historians do that great men lead humanity to the attainment of certain ends—the greatness of Russia or of France, the balance of power in Europe, the diffusion of the ideas of the Revolution, general progress, or anything else—then it is impossible to explain the facts of history without introducing the conceptions of chance and genius.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (38% in)
  • But instead of being greeted with pleasure as she had expected, at his first glance at her his face assumed a cold, stiff, proud expression she had not seen on it before.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (46% in)
  • Secondly, it is assumed that the goal toward which humanity is being led is known to the historians: to one of them this goal is the greatness of the Roman, Spanish, or French realm; to another it is liberty, equality, and a certain kind of civilization of a small corner of the world called Europe.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (74% in)
  • History seems to assume that this force is self-evident and known to everyone.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (76% in)
  • To these questions three answers are possible: Either to assume (1) that the will of the people is always unconditionally transferred to the ruler or rulers they have chosen, and that therefore every emergence of a new power, every struggle against the power once appointed, should be absolutely regarded as an infringement of the real power; or (2) that the will of the people is transferred to the rulers conditionally, under definite and known conditions, and to show that all...
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (81% in)
  • Some historians—those biographical and specialist historians already referred to—in their simplicity failing to understand the question of the meaning of power, seem to consider that the collective will of the people is unconditionally transferred to historical persons, and therefore when describing some single state they assume that particular power to be the one absolute and real power, and that any other force opposing this is not a power but a violation of power—mere violence.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (81% in)
  • Historians of the third class assume that the will of the people is transferred to historic personages conditionally, but that the conditions are unknown to us.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (82% in)
  • Such is the reply historians who assume that the collective will of the people is delegated to rulers under conditions which they regard as known.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (84% in)
  • Men uniting in these combinations always assume such relations toward one another that the larger number take a more direct share, and the smaller number a less direct share, in the collective action for which they have combined.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (86% in)
  • Examining only those expressions of the will of historical persons which, as commands, were related to events, historians have assumed that the events depended on those commands.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (88% in)
  • But besides this, even if, admitting the remaining minimum of freedom to equal zero, we assumed in some given case—as for instance in that of a dying man, an unborn babe, or an idiot—complete absence of freedom, by so doing we should destroy the very conception of man in the case we are examining, for as soon as there is no freedom there is also no man.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (96% in)
  • And so to imagine the action of a man entirely subject to the law of inevitability without any freedom, we must assume the knowledge of an infinite number of space relations, an infinitely long period of time, and an infinite series of causes.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (96% in)
  • And yet the former history continues to be studied side by side with the laws of statistics, geography, political economy, comparative philology, and geology, which directly contradict its assumptions.
    Book Fifteen — 1812-13 (99% in)

There are no more uses of "assume" in War and Peace.

Typical Usage  (best examples)
Dictionary / pronunciation — Google®Dictionary list —®