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The Jungle by Sinclair
Vocabulary

Extra Credit Words with Sample Sentences from the Book

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attribute
1 use
1  —1 use as in:
I attribute it to...
To a musket that broke in a crisis he always attributed the death of his only brother, and upon worthless blankets he blamed all the agonies of his own old age.
attributed = credited (pointed to as the cause of something)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of attribute means:
to credit (a source for something) — such as:
  • to say that something happened because of someone or something else
  • to indicate the source of an idea or quotation
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library6 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 100
1st useChapter 30
Web Links
complacent
1 use
Jokubas possesses what his wife complacently describes as "poetiszka vaidintuve"—a poetical imagination.
complacently = with contentment (unworried and satisfied)
DefinitionGenerally complacent means:
contented (unworried and satisfied) — often to a fault
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library3 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 1000
1st useChapter 1
Web Links
contrast
2 uses
1  —2 uses as in:
contrast their writing styles
All these horrors afflicted Jurgis all the more cruelly, because he was always contrasting them with the opportunities he had lost.
contrasting = comparing to show differences
DefinitionGenerally this sense of contrast means:
point to differences between; or compare to show differences
Word Statistics
Book2 uses
Library6 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 10
1st useChapter 27
Web Links
correspond   (2 meanings)
2 meanings, 3 uses
1  —2 uses as in:
corresponding time period
In piecework they would reduce the time, requiring the same work in a shorter time, and paying the same wages; and then, after the workers had accustomed themselves to this new speed, they would reduce the rate of payment to correspond with the reduction in time!†
correspond = fit together
DefinitionGenerally this sense of correspond means:
connect or fit together by being equivalent, proportionate, or matched

(Two things are equivalent if they have the same or very similar value, purpose, or result.)
Word Statistics
Book2 uses
Library4 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 100
1st useChapter 11
Web Links
2  —1 use as in:
foreign correspondent of the paper
It sent a correspondent to Colorado, and printed pages describing the overthrow of American institutions in that state.†
correspondent = reporter
DefinitionGenerally this sense of correspondent means:
a reporter — typically from a foreign country or with a particular expertise
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library1 use in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 30
Web Links
debase
3 uses
"So long as we have wage slavery," answered Schliemann, "it matters not in the least how debasing and repulsive a task may be, it is easy to find people to perform it."
debasing = degrading (in this case, reducing the status or value of being human)
DefinitionGenerally debase means:
to degrade (decrease) the purity, quality, or status of something — often morality or metals
Word Statistics
Book3 uses
Library1 use in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 31
Web Links
denounce
5 uses
Who denounced in unmeasured terms the exploiters of his own time:
denounced = strongly criticized or accused publicly
DefinitionGenerally denounce means:
to strongly criticize or accuse publicly

or more rarely:  to inform against someone (turn someone into the authorities)
Word Statistics
Book5 uses
Library7 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 30
Web Links
dubious
2 uses
Seeing the farmer eying him dubiously, he added, "I'll be glad to sleep in the barn."
dubiously = doubtfully or suspiciously
DefinitionGenerally dubious means:
doubtful — such as:
  • uncertain that something can be relied upon
  • uncertain about the quality or wisdom of something
  • a relatively gentle way of saying that the quality of something described as good is in such doubt that it is considered bad
Word Statistics
Book2 uses
Library5 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 1000
1st useChapter 22
Web Links
efface
1 use
What was any tyranny of prison compared with the tyranny of the past, of the thing that had happened and could not be recalled, of the memory that could never be effaced!
effaced = erased
DefinitionGenerally efface means:
remove completely from recognition or memory — sometimes by erasing

or:

to make oneself inconspicuous or unimportant
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library1 use in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 16
Web Links
explicit
1 use
1  —1 use as in:
explicit instructions
...who again and again, in the most explicit language, denounced wealth and the holding of wealth: 'Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth!'†
explicit = clear and detailed
DefinitionGenerally this sense of explicit means:
clear and with enough detail so there is no confusion
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library4 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 100
1st useChapter 31
Web Links
florid
1 use
1  —1 use as in:
florid color
In front, upon a raised platform behind a rail, sat a stout, florid-faced personage, with a nose broken out in purple blotches.
florid = reddish colored
DefinitionGenerally this sense of florid means:
a reddish color — (especially about someone's complexion or in various medical contexts)
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library1 use in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 16
Web Links
foreman
14 uses
Jurgis clung to his guide like a scared child to its nurse, and while the latter hailed one foreman after another to ask if they could use another unskilled man, he stared about him and marveled.
foreman = someone who is in charge of other workers
DefinitionGenerally foreman means:
a person who is in charge of other workers

or:

a juror in a court case who is selected by other jurors to head the jury
Word Statistics
Book14 uses
Library7 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 27
Web Links
ingenious
5 uses
In the pickling of hams they had an ingenious apparatus, by which they saved time and increased the capacity of the
plant
ingenious = showing inventiveness and skill
Word Statistics
Book5 uses
Library4 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 9
Web Links
negative
1 use
1  —1 use as in:
had a negative effect
"I have pointed out some of the negative wastes of competition," answered the other.†
negative = bad or harmful
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library5 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 100
1st useChapter 31
Web Links
obstinate
6 uses
Jurgis could be very obstinate when he wanted to, and he was in this case,
obstinate = stubbornly not doing what others want
Word Statistics
Book6 uses
Library4 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 4
Web Links
oppress
14 uses
1  —14 uses as in:
oppressive government
One of the girls had read somewhere that a red flag was the proper symbol for oppressed workers, and so they mounted one, and paraded all about the yards, yelling with rage.
oppressed = treated harshly and unfairly
DefinitionGenerally this sense of oppress means:
to dominate harshly and unfairly (as in "oppressive government")

or:

to deny equal rights to others or make them suffer (as in "The government oppresses minorities.")
Word Statistics
Book14 uses
Library7 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 28
Web Links
penury
1 use
Poor Jurgis, who had in truth grown more matter-of-fact, under the endless pressure of penury, would not know what to make of these things,
penury = a state of extreme poverty
DefinitionGenerally penury means:
a state of extreme poverty or destitution
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library0 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 12
Web Links
positive
1 use
1  —1 use as in:
had a positive effect
I have pointed out some of the negative wastes of competition, answered the other. I have hardly mentioned the positive economies of co-operation.†
positive = good or beneficial
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library3 uses in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 100
1st useChapter 31
Web Links
precipitate
1 use
1  —1 use
adj as in: a precipitate decision
Seeing the throng, Marija abandoned precipitately the debate concerning the ancestors of her coachman, and, springing from the moving carriage, plunged in and proceeded to clear a way to the hall.
precipitately = with great haste
DefinitionGenerally this sense of precipitate means:
acting with great haste — often without adequate thought
Word Statistics
Book1 use
Library1 use in 10 avg bks
SAT®*top 1000
1st useChapter 1
Web Links
pretense
4 uses
Now a good many of the guests have finished, and, since there is no pretense of ceremony, the banquet begins to break up.
pretense = an appearance or action to help one pretend
Word Statistics
Book4 uses
Library7 uses in 10 avg bks
1st useChapter 1
Web Links
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