Surprise attack by Egypt and Syria against Israel on the Jewish holy day, Yom Kippur. The Arabs had early success and were joined by limited forces and support from other Arab nations. In the end, the Arabs lost more territory than they gained, but the war was viewed as a psychological victory for the Arabs. (1973)
Many believe the Arabs were spared a humiliating defeat by Soviet insistence upon a cease fire agreement. Because of U.S. support for Israel, Arab countries began a 5% per month reduction in oil production. Two days later, President Nixon authorized further help to Israel, so Saudi Arabia began what became the oil Embargo against the U.S. and other selected states — causing the 1973 energy crises which led to many Americans waiting in line for expensive gasoline.
This war is also referred to as "The 1973 Arab-Israeli War", "The October War", and "The Fourth Arab-Israeli War."