17th century philosophy in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of modern philosophy, and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism.
Late 17th century philosophy is often called the Age of Reason or Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed the Renaissance philosophy era and precede the Age of Enlightenment, but some consider it as the earliest part of the Enlightenment era in philosophy, extending that era to two centuries.
The Age of Reason saw a separation of philosophy and theology.
There once was an Age of Reason, but we’ve progressed beyond it.
Ayn Rand -- Atlas Shrugged
This was so characteristic that the French Enlightenment is often called the Age of Reason.
Jostein Gaarder -- Sophie’s World
Timothy was a wiry old laborer, of a type lingering in those times—who had his savings in a stocking-foot, lived in a lone cottage, and was not to be wrought on by any oratory, having as little of the feudal spirit, and believing as little, as if he had not been totally unacquainted with the Age of Reason and the Rights of Man.