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ibid


1. Richard Posner, Law, Pragmatism, and Democracy 28-29 (2003).
2. Ibid. at 31.
  in scholarly writing:  a reference in a footnote, bibliography, etc., indicating that the citation is identical to the previous citation; though it may be followed by a qualifier such as a different page number
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Notes:
"Id." is often used instead of "ibid." for the same purpose in legal writing. "Op. Cit." and "Loc. cit" are close variations.

An unqualified "Ibid" or "Id" is like seeing ditto marks — telling the reader that the current citation is the same as the prior citation. The "Ibid" or "Id" may be followed with a qualifier such as a chapter or page to indicate the same place with that variation.

The first letter may or may not be capitalized. Sometimes the period is omitted.

"Ibid" is an abbreviation for the Latin word, "ibidem" (in the same place). "Id" is an abbreviation for the Latin word, "idem" (the same). Some use "Id" to reference a different book or article by the same author.
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Samples:
  • 1. Richard Posner, Law, Pragmatism, and Democracy 28-29 (2003).
    2. Ibid. at 31.
  • Also, for similar corruptions, The Jersey Dutch Dialect, by J. Dyneley Prince, /ibid.
    Henry L. Mencken  --  The American Language
  • IBID.
    Herman Melville  --  Moby Dick
  • Ibid. vol. iii. p. 339.
    Mark Twain  --  The Prince and The Pauper

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  • GEORGE MARTHA (Ibid).
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • ] [Footnote v: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • 2 Ibid.
    Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay  --  The Federalist Papers
  • ] [Footnote w: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • 41 and 42; Kent’s "Commentaries," vol. i. p. 207; Story, pp. 358-382; Ibid. pp. 409-426.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • ] [Footnote g: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1

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  • ] [Footnote j: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • 3 Ibid.
    Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay  --  The Federalist Papers
  • IBID.
    Herman Melville  --  Moby Dick
  • IBID.
    Herman Melville  --  Moby Dick
  • / /Dialect Notes/, vol. iii, pt. i, p. 59; /ibid.
    Henry L. Mencken  --  The American Language
  • (Laughs, ibid) Poor lamb.
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • NICK (Ibid) Jesus Christ, I think I understand this.
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • GEORGE (Ibid) Good for you, buster.
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • GEORGE (Ibid) Do you?
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • Ibid. p. 12.
    Mark Twain  --  The Prince and The Pauper
  • (Laughs, ibid) He mooed at it . and the beast, oh, surprised, swung its head up and mooed at him, all three years of him, and he ran, startled, and he stumbled . fell . and broke his poor arm.
    Edward Albee  --  Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
  • Ibid.
    Mark Twain  --  The Prince and The Pauper
  • Ibid.
    Mark Twain  --  The Prince and The Pauper
  • [Footnote f: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • [Footnote k: Ibid.
    Alexis de Toqueville  --  Democracy In America, Volume 1
  • 4 ] Ibid.
    Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay  --  The Federalist Papers
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Associated words [difficulty]:   ibid [7]
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Most commonly used in these subjects:   Architecture, Philosophy, Logic & Reasoning
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