(2) The purification and reformation of oneself for its reception, and (3) The improvement of the human race by striving for such purification.
Certainly self-reformation and self-purification.
But at the same time just this aim demands the greatest efforts of us; and so, led astray by pride, losing sight of this aim, we occupy ourselves either with the mystery which in our impurity we are unworthy to receive, or seek the reformation of the human race while ourselves setting an example of baseness and profligacy.
We learn that Luther had a hot temper and said such and such things; we learn that Rousseau was suspicious and wrote such and such books; but we do not learn why after the Reformation the peoples massacred one another, nor why during the French Revolution they guillotined one another.
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Most scholars date the reformation from Luther’s 1517 publishing of The Ninety-Five Theses to the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia.
Unlike most involved in the Reformation, Luther argued that free will was the central issue.