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100 Words Encountered in

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chronological
Events are listed in chronological order.
chronological = arranged according to time
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immigrate
About 1 of each 8 people in the United States immigrated from somewhere else.
immigrated = came to live (from another country)
DefinitionGenerally immigrate means:
come to live in a new country
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emigrate
Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period
emigrate = leave a country of residence to move to another country
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medieval
The story takes place during medieval times.
medieval = relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
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doctrine
She challenges accepted doctrine.
doctrine = generally accepted beliefs
DefinitionGenerally doctrine means:
a belief (or system of beliefs or principles) accepted as authoritative by some group
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contemporaneous
The recession in Asia was contemporaneous with that in the United States.
contemporaneous = occurring in the same period of time; or of the same period
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renaissance

(with an uppercase "R")
We're visiting the museum to see the exhibit of Renaissance art.
Renaissance = the period of European history known for a revival of intellectual and artistic achievement (14th through mid-17th centuries)
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Middle East
It is as likely as fair weather in southern California and unrest in the Middle East.†
Middle East = a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf (though there is no agreement on an exact to definition)
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archaeology
She is on an archaeological dig.†
archaeological = the study of ancient cultures through study of  material remains
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anthropology
She majored in anthropology and just finished a report for the State Department that describes tribal customs in eastern Africa.
anthropology = the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
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communism
A challenge with communism is that it is harder to know how to allocate capital when prices are subjective rather than the product of individual valuations.
communism = an economic system that abolishes private ownership of property with the goal of a classless society
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diplomatic
cannot be arrested because he enjoys diplomatic immunity†
diplomatic = skilled in dealing with sensitive matters or people
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emerge
China recently emerged as a world power.
emerged = came out (became)
DefinitionGenerally emerge means:
to come out, or to appear
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dominate
The defending World Champions dominated their unranked opponent.
dominated = controlled
DefinitionGenerally dominate means:
to control; or to be most influential, powerful, or conspicuous
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discriminate
as in:
suffered discrimination
We do not discriminate based on race, nationality, social status, age, gender, religion, or sexual preference.
discriminate = unfairly treat of different groups of people differently
DefinitionGenerally this sense of discriminate means:
to treat people of different groups differently — especially unfair treatment due to race, religion or gender
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narrative
as in:
Narrative of the Life of...
He titled his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
narrative = Story
DefinitionGenerally this sense of narrative means:
a story
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Soviet Union
Over half of the citizens of the Soviet Union were Russian.
Soviet Union = a former communist country that fought the cold war with the United States
DefinitionGenerally Soviet Union means:
a former communist country that fought the cold war with the United States and which consisted of Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics; established 1922 and officially dissolved 31 December 1991
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manifest
as in:
manifest destiny
Domestic violence doesn't always manifest as physical abuse.
manifest = show (made obvious)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of manifest means:
obvious; or to make obvious; or to show or demonstrate
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reign
as in:
She reigned over England
The arranged marriage solidified the alliance between two of Europe's most important reigning families.
reigning = ruling
DefinitionGenerally this sense of reign means:
rule (like that of a king or queen); or the time during which one ruled
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subsequent
Her guess was proven right by subsequent developments.
subsequent = following
DefinitionGenerally subsequent means:
following something else
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Islam
Islam is predominant in northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Indonesia.
Islam = the monotheistic religious system of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran; the world's second most practiced religion
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genealogy
The world wide web is making genealogy easier than ever.
genealogy = the study of family ancestry (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc.)
DefinitionGenerally genealogy means:
family ancestry or its study
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emancipated
She was an emancipated 20th century woman pursuing her career.
emancipated = released from social restraints

(used as a metaphor for the literal sense of being released from slavery)
DefinitionGenerally emancipated means:
released from slavery or servitude; or (metaphorically) from social restraints
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premier
as in:
premier of Ontario
In 2013 he became the Premier of the State Council of China.
premier = title for the head of a government body in some countries
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monastery
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries was the largest legally enforced transfer of property in English history since the Norman Conquest.
monasteries = the residences of religious communities
DefinitionGenerally monastery means:
the residence of a religious community
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perish
...government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
Abraham Lincoln  --  Gettysburg Address
perish = be destroyed or cease to exist
DefinitionGenerally perish means:
to die — especially in an unnatural way

or:

to be destroyed or cease to exist
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decentralize
The government is decentralizing economic decision making.†
decentralizing = to change from one area of control or concentration to multiple areas
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Marxism
As a child, he adopted a Castro-inspired Marxism.
Marxism = belief in the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism
DefinitionGenerally Marxism means:
belief in the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be replaced by communism
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liberate
She works to liberate the religious minority from persecution.
liberate = set free
DefinitionGenerally liberate means:
to set free — as from prison or political oppression
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frontier
as in:
the frontier of Tibet
Indian soldiers and technicians assisted in staffing some of the checkposts on the frontier with Tibet.
frontier = an international boundary or a wilderness at the edge of a settled area
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urban
want to revitalize the downtown and limit urban sprawl†
urban = relating to a city
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Palestine
The boundaries of Palestine have changed through history.
Palestine = a geographic region on the Eastern Coast of the Mediterranean in the Middle East, at various times comprising parts of modern Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, and Egypt
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ancient Egypt
Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt.†
ancient Egypt = from 3150 BC when Upper and Lower Egypt were united, until 31 BC when Rome conquered Egypt
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Roman Empire
A Roman Republic existed for 500 years before the start of the Roman Empire.†
Roman Empire = the transition from a republic to an empire is generally thought to start in 27 BC with Augustus and end in 1453 with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks
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flourish
as in:
the business is flourishing
The children are flourishing.
flourishing = thriving (growing or developing well)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of flourish means:
to thrive (grow or develop well)
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Nazi
The Nazis murdered about six million Jews as well as others they considered to be inferior or incurably sick.
Nazis = members of Hitler's political party who thought they were superior to all others
DefinitionGenerally Nazi means:
Hitler's fanatical and oppressive political party in World War II Germany

or:

a member of Hitler's fanatical and oppressive political party in World War II Germany

or more rarely:

derogatory term for a person who is fanatical in their belief of superiority and their determination to control others
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compel
Does our DNA compel us to act as we do?
compel = force
DefinitionGenerally compel means:
to force someone to do something

or more rarely:

to convince someone to do something
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Hitler
Hitler killed disabled children as his first action of  "racial hygiene." He pretended to end the program when the public protested.
Hitler = German Nazi dictator during World War II
DefinitionGenerally this sense of Hitler means:
German Nazi dictator during World War II; murdered millions of Jews and others who were not of the Aryan race (1889-1945)
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9/11
Flying was different before 9/11.†
9/11 = September 11, 2001; when Al Qaeda suicide bombers hijacked United States airliners and used them as bombs to destroy the World Trade Center in New York City and to attack the Pentagon; about 3,000 innocents (mostly civilians) were killed
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Osama bin Laden
They suspect Osama bin Laden is hiding in the Pakistan mountains.†
Osama bin Laden = Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda and was behind the 9/11 terrorists strikes (b. 1957)
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War of 1812
The White House was burned during the War of 1812.†
War of 1812 = 1812-1815 war between the United States and England
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peasant
Most people in the Middle Ages were peasants.
peasants = used historically: people of low income, education, and social standing
DefinitionGenerally peasant means:
used historically or possibly in relation to a very poor country:  a person of low income, education, and social standing — especially one who raises crops or livestock
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Stalin
Millions of people died from Stalin's economic and modernization policies.†
Stalin = Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
DefinitionGenerally this sense of Stalin means:
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition. During the Great Purge of his own people, he imprisoned millions and executed at least 700,000. Prior to that millions died in a famine caused or made much worse by Stalin's heavy-handed government. (1879-1953)
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clandestine
She is involved in clandestine intelligence operations.
clandestine = secret or hidden

or:

done with or marked by hidden aims or methods
DefinitionGenerally clandestine means:
secret; or conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
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contend
as in:
She contended for the gold medal
Militant groups are contending for control of the country
contending = competing
DefinitionGenerally this sense of contend means:
to compete
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Carthage
Carthage is being resettled today as a suburb of Tunis.
Carthage = an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 698
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans captured Constantinople 1453.†
Ottomans = Turkish Empire founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and lasting until the end of World War I; in the 16th-17th century it ruled much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
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antebellum era
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is set in the antebellum South.†
antebellum = pre-Civil War
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Vikings
Viking raids were not just on the coasts, but also up the rivers.
Viking = any of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries
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Jerusalem
Palestinians demanded that Israel halt construction in East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem = capital and largest city of the modern state of Israel; a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims
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oppress
as in:
oppressive government
The regime oppresses its people.
oppresses = harshly and unfairly dominates
DefinitionGenerally this sense of oppress means:
to dominate harshly and unfairly (as in "oppressive government")

or:

to deny equal rights to others or make them suffer (as in "The government oppresses minorities.")
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Mayan Civilization
Post-Columbian Mayans almost totally adopted Roman Catholicism.
Mayans = members of an American Indian civilization of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala that reached its peak between AD 300 and 900
DefinitionGenerally Mayan Civilization means:
an American Indian civilization of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala that reached its peak between AD 300 and 900; characterized by outstanding architecture, pottery, and astronomy
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Herodotus
Herodotus preceded Thucydides.†
Herodotus = the ancient Greek known as the father of history; his accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing (485-425 BC)
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Assyria
Stephen Bertman says Assyrians invented excavation to undermine walls of besieged cities.†
Assyrians = an ancient kingdom centered in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day Iraq
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Nero
Nero had his mother executed.†
Nero = Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Roman Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
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Phoenicia
The Phoenician alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of all modern alphabets.†
Phoenician = an ancient collection of city states at eastern end of the Mediterranean known for their maritime trading culture between 1550 BC to 300 BC
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Reformation
Most scholars date the reformation from Luther's 1517 publishing of The Ninety-Five Theses to the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia.†
Reformation = a series of Christian efforts to reform the Catholic Church which led to major protestant denominations separate than the Catholic Church
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Enlightenment
There isn't a consensus on when the Age of Enlightenment began.†
Age of Enlightenment = generally interpreted as an 18th century movement that further advanced the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions — especially in Britain, France, Germany, and the American colonies
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New World
Europeans carried numerous diseases such as smallpox, typhus, cholera and measles to the New World.
New World = the Western Hemisphere (the Americas)
DefinitionGenerally New World means:
the Americas (North, South, and Central with nearby islands) (also known as the Western Hemisphere — which was new to Europe in the 16th century)
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Queen Elizabeth
The Elizabethan era is in reference to the 45 years that Queen Elizabeth ruled.
Queen Elizabeth = queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603
DefinitionGenerally this sense of Queen Elizabeth means:
queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated (1533-1603)
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ancient Athens
The Parthenon is the best known temple of ancient Athens.†
ancient Athens = center of the intellectual and artistic developments that created the Golden Age of Greece (5th century BC); named after Athena (its patron goddess)
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Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt is remembered for saying: "Speak softly but carry a big stick."
Theodore Roosevelt = 26th President of the United States; broke anti-competitive U.S. cartels, hero of the Spanish-American War; and champion of the building of the Panama Canal (1858-1919)
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Constantinople
Turkey renamed Constantinople to Istanbul in 1930.
Constantinople = the city of Byzantium was renamed to Constantinople which was renamed to Istanbul, Turkey; Constantine made it the capital of the eastern Roman Empire in the fourth century
DefinitionGenerally Constantinople means:
the city of Byzantium was renamed to Constantinople which was renamed to Istanbul, Turkey; Constantine made it the capital of the Byzantium Empire (also known as the eastern Roman Empire) in the fourth century
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League of Nations
It is as hopeful and effective as the League of Nations.†
League of Nations = an international organization formed after the First World War in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and the League remained powerless; dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed
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crusade
as in:
First Crusade to Jerusalem
Resentments date back to the Crusades.
Crusades = any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11th to 13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe invaded Muslims in the Holy Land in the Middle East
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Hellenic
The home is filled with Hellenic rugs.†
Hellenic = relating to or characteristic of Greece or classical Greek civilization
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Florence
Florence attracts millions of tourists each year.
Florence = city in central Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance from 14th to 16th centuries; provincial capital of Tuscany
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Amazon River
Most people associate the Amazon River with Brazil.†
Amazon River = South American river which is largest in world by volume of water and world's 2nd longest river (4000 miles)
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Treaty of Versailles
as successful a settlement as the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles = the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
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magistrate
The local magistrate insisted on a cash payment for the speeding ticket.
magistrate = judicial official
DefinitionGenerally magistrate means:
a judicial official — in the U.S. typically a judge for minor offenses or preliminary hearings
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dwell
as in:
It dwells in the forest.
The creature dwells in the forest.
dwells = lives in
DefinitionGenerally this sense of dwell means:
make one's home in; or to live in; or to stay (in a place)
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social sciences
For a time, China eliminated the social sciences from university curricula.†
social sciences = comprised of areas of study that apply scientific methods to human aspects of the world; e.g., psychology and economics
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The Danube
The Danube flows through more countries than any other European river.
The Danube = the 2nd longest European river; flows from southwestern Germany to the Black Sea
DefinitionGenerally The Danube means:
the 2nd longest European river (after the Volga); flows from southwestern Germany to the Black Sea
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Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke famously said, "Manners are of more importance than laws."†
Edmund Burke = British statesman famous for his oratory; pleaded the cause of the American colonists in British Parliament and defended the parliamentary system (1729-1797)
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Fourteenth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment overturned the Dred Scott decision.†
Fourteenth Amendment = The Bill of Rights originally guaranteed rights from infringement by the Federal government. This important 1868 amendment extended most of those rights so that state governments were also prohibited from infringing upon them.

It also guaranteed that no person should be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law and that all persons shall be guaranteed equal protection under the law.
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Alexander the Great
Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great.†
Alexander the Great = conqueror of most of the world known to the ancient Greeks which lead to the Hellenistic Age (356-323 BC)
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Mecca
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering Mecca.
Mecca = the birthplace of Muhammad and the holiest city of Islam (located in western Saudi Arabia)
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Tiberius
The town Tiberias, in modern Israel was named in Tiberius's honor by Herod.†
Tiberius = son-in-law of Augustus who became second Roman Emperor; after a brilliant military career, a suspicious and tyrannical emperor (42 BC to AD 37)
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Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1986, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a national holiday in the United States.
Martin Luther King = In 1986, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a national holiday in the United States.
DefinitionGenerally Martin Luther King Jr. means:
inspiring U.S. civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of blacks; assassinated (1929-1968)
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pre-Columbian era
Human sacrifice was practiced in much of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.†
pre-Columbian = relating to or originating in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus
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Queen Victoria
The Victorian era is in reference to the 63 years that Queen Victoria ruled.
Queen Victoria = queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 when the monarchy had primarily symbolic power
DefinitionGenerally Queen Victoria means:
queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 when the monarchy had primarily symbolic power; the last Hanoverian ruler of England (1819-1901)
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Harry S. Truman
David McCullough published an excellent biography on Truman in 1992.†
Truman = 33rd President of the United States on Roosevelt's death in 1945 and was elected President in 1948; authorized the use of atomic bombs against Japan, instituted the Truman Doctrine to contain communism (1884-1972)
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feudalism
In 1890 parliamentary government replaced feudalism in Japan.†
feudalism = the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century (vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war); or similar political/economic systems
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vassal
Vassals were expected to fight offensive wars up to two months a year.†
vassals = someone subservient to and dependent upon another — especially part of the hierarchy in feudal times
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Afrikaner
They have Afrikaner support.
Afrikaner = South Africans whose first language is Afrikaans — typically descendants of 17th century Dutch settlers; previously called Boers
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Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was hated by Catholics and Royalists.†
Oliver Cromwell = English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (making England into a republican Commonwealth) and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599-1658)
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Thucydides
Herodotus preceded Thucydides.†
Thucydides = ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC)
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Henry Clay
Henry Clay's tombstone reads: "I know no North - no South - no East - no West."
Henry Clay = U.S. politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
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Ph.D
She is a research scientist who earned her Ph.D in physics.
Ph.D = a research doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation; the highest degree awarded in universities in many fields of study
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Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson's portrait appears on the twenty-dollar bill.
Andrew Jackson = 7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency (1767-1845)
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Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar was proclaimed dictator perpetuus (dictator for life).†
Julius Caesar = the most famous of Rome's generals and leaders (100-44 BC)
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Henry II
Some historians think Henry II did not want Thomas Becket murdered.†
Henry II = French born King of England; instituted judicial and financial reforms; quarreled with archbishop Becket concerning the authority of the Crown over the church (1133-1189)
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Inca Empire
The Inca Empire was in the midst of a civil war when the Spaniards conquered them.†
Inca Empire = largest of the pre-Columbian American empires centered in the Peruvian Andes from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
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Charles I
Charles I was opposed by Parliament and by Puritans.†
Charles I = King of England and Scotland and Ireland; battled with Parliament for authority, deposed, executed by Oliver Cromwell (1600-1649)
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East India Company
For a time, the East India Company virtually ruled India.†
East India Company = an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia; in the 18th century it assumed administrative control of India and held it until the British army took over in 1858 after the Indian Mutiny
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Hannibal
Hannibal is often quoted as having said, "We will either find a way, or make one."†
Hannibal = general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War; crossed the Alps, defeated the Romans but was recalled to defend Carthage and was defeated (247-182 BC)
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liege
He was her liege lord.
liege = a feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service
DefinitionGenerally liege means:
a feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service

or:

a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord
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conquistador
Conquistadors conquered more people with European diseases than with their weapons.†
conquistadors = a Spanish word meaning someone who conquers other people — especially one who led the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century
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Council of Trent
The Council of Trent ended the sale of indulgences.†
Council of Trent = a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers; redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine, abolished various ecclesiastical abuses, and strengthened the papacy
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Saxons
The Saxons were amongst the invaders of Britannia during the 5th century.†
Saxons = a confederation of old Germanic tribes from modern day northern Germany and their descendants who settled in modern day England and eastern Netherlands
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† 
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