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vocabulary
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100 Words Encountered in

History

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immigrate
About 1 of each 8 people in the United States immigrated from somewhere else.
immigrated = came to live (from another country)
DefinitionGenerally immigrate means:
come to live in a new country
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emigrate
Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period
emigrate = leave a country of residence to move to another country
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medieval
The story takes place during medieval times.
medieval = relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
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doctrine
She challenges accepted doctrine.
doctrine = generally accepted beliefs
DefinitionGenerally doctrine means:
a belief (or system of beliefs or principles) accepted as authoritative by some group
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contemporaneous
The recession in Asia was contemporaneous with that in the United States.
contemporaneous = occurring in the same period of time; or of the same period
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renaissance

(with an uppercase "R")
We're visiting the museum to see the exhibit of Renaissance art.
Renaissance = the period of European history known for a revival of intellectual and artistic achievement (14th through mid-17th centuries)
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anthropology
She majored in anthropology and just finished a report for the State Department that describes tribal customs in eastern Africa.
anthropology = the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
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communism
A challenge with communism is that it is harder to know how to allocate capital when prices are subjective rather than the product of individual valuations.
communism = an economic system that abolishes private ownership of property with the goal of a classless society
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emerge
China recently emerged as a world power.
emerged = came out (became)
DefinitionGenerally emerge means:
to come out, or to appear
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dominate
The defending World Champions dominated their unranked opponent.
dominated = controlled
DefinitionGenerally dominate means:
to control; or to be most influential, powerful, or conspicuous
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discriminate
as in:
suffered discrimination
We do not discriminate based on race, nationality, social status, age, gender, religion, or sexual preference.
discriminate = unfairly treat of different groups of people differently
DefinitionGenerally this sense of discriminate means:
to treat people of different groups differently — especially unfair treatment due to race, religion or gender
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narrative
as in:
Narrative of the Life of...
He titled his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
narrative = Story
DefinitionGenerally this sense of narrative means:
a story
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Soviet Union
Over half of the citizens of the Soviet Union were Russian.
Soviet Union = a former communist country that fought the cold war with the United States
DefinitionGenerally Soviet Union means:
a former communist country that fought the cold war with the United States and which consisted of Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics; established 1922 and officially dissolved 31 December 1991
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manifest
as in:
manifest destiny
Domestic violence doesn't always manifest as physical abuse.
manifest = show (made obvious)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of manifest means:
obvious; or to make obvious; or to show or demonstrate
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reign
as in:
She reigned over England
The arranged marriage solidified the alliance between two of Europe's most important reigning families.
reigning = ruling
DefinitionGenerally this sense of reign means:
rule (like that of a king or queen); or the time during which one ruled
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subsequent
Her guess was proven right by subsequent developments.
subsequent = following
DefinitionGenerally subsequent means:
following something else
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Islam
Islam is predominant in northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Indonesia.
Islam = the monotheistic religious system of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran; the world's second most practiced religion
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genealogy
The world wide web is making genealogy easier than ever.
genealogy = the study of family ancestry
DefinitionGenerally genealogy means:
family ancestry or its study
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emancipated
She was an emancipated 20th century woman pursuing her career.
emancipated = released from social restraints

(used as a metaphor for the literal sense of being released from slavery)
DefinitionGenerally emancipated means:
released from slavery or servitude; or (metaphorically) from social restraints
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premier
as in:
premier of Ontario
In 2013 he became the Premier of the State Council of China.
premier = title for the head of a government body in some countries
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monastery
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries was the largest legally enforced transfer of property in English history since the Norman Conquest.
monasteries = the residences of religious communities
DefinitionGenerally monastery means:
the residence of a religious community
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perish
...government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
Abraham Lincoln  --  Gettysburg Address
perish = be destroyed or cease to exist
DefinitionGenerally perish means:
to die — especially in an unnatural way

or:

to be destroyed or cease to exist
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Marxism
As a child, he adopted a Castro-inspired Marxism.
Marxism = belief in the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by communism
DefinitionGenerally Marxism means:
belief in the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be replaced by communism
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liberate
She works to liberate the religious minority from persecution.
liberate = set free
DefinitionGenerally liberate means:
to set free — as from prison or political oppression
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frontier
as in:
the frontier of Tibet
Indian soldiers and technicians assisted in staffing some of the checkposts on the frontier with Tibet.
frontier = an international boundary or a wilderness at the edge of a settled area
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Palestine
The boundaries of Palestine have changed through history.
Palestine = a geographic region on the Eastern Coast of the Mediterranean in the Middle East, at various times comprising parts of modern Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, and Egypt
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flourish
as in:
the business is flourishing
The children are flourishing.
flourishing = thriving (growing or developing well)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of flourish means:
to thrive (grow or develop well)
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Nazi
There are still racists who call themselves Nazis today.
Nazis = members of Hitler's political party who thought they were superior to all others; or those who identify with them
DefinitionGenerally Nazi means:
Hitler's fanatical and oppressive political party in World War II Germany

or:

a member of Hitler's fanatical and oppressive political party in World War II Germany

or more rarely:

derogatory term for a person who is fanatical in their belief of superiority and their determination to control others
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compel
Does our DNA compel us to act as we do?
compel = force
DefinitionGenerally compel means:
to force someone to do something

or more rarely:

to convince someone to do something
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Hitler
Hitler killed disabled children as his first action of  "racial hygiene." He pretended to end the program when the public protested.
Hitler = German Nazi dictator during World War II
DefinitionGenerally this sense of Hitler means:
German Nazi dictator during World War II; murdered millions of Jews and others who were not of the Aryan race (1889-1945)
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peasant
Most people in the Middle Ages were peasants.
peasants = used historically: people of low income, education, and social standing
DefinitionGenerally peasant means:
used historically or possibly in relation to a very poor country:  a person of low income, education, and social standing — especially one who raises crops or livestock
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clandestine
She is involved in clandestine intelligence operations.
clandestine = secret or hidden

or:

done with or marked by hidden aims or methods
DefinitionGenerally clandestine means:
secret; or conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
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contend
as in:
She contended for the gold medal
Militant groups are contending for control of the country
contending = competing
DefinitionGenerally this sense of contend means:
to compete
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Carthage
Carthage is being resettled today as a suburb of Tunis.
Carthage = an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 698
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Vikings
Viking raids were not just on the coasts, but also up the rivers.
Viking = any of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries
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Jerusalem
Palestinians demanded that Israel halt construction in East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem = capital and largest city of the modern state of Israel; a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims
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oppress
as in:
oppressive government
The regime oppresses its people.
oppresses = harshly and unfairly dominates
DefinitionGenerally this sense of oppress means:
to dominate harshly and unfairly (as in "oppressive government")

or:

to deny equal rights to others or make them suffer (as in "The government oppresses minorities.")
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Mayan Civilization
Post-Columbian Mayans almost totally adopted Roman Catholicism.
Mayans = members of an American Indian civilization of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala that reached its peak between AD 300 and 900
DefinitionGenerally Mayan Civilization means:
an American Indian civilization of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala that reached its peak between AD 300 and 900; characterized by outstanding architecture, pottery, and astronomy
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New World
Europeans carried numerous diseases such as smallpox, typhus, cholera and measles to the New World.
New World = the Western Hemisphere (the Americas)
DefinitionGenerally New World means:
the Americas (North, South, and Central with nearby islands) (also known as the Western Hemisphere — which was new to Europe in the 16th century)
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Queen Elizabeth
The Elizabethan era is in reference to the 45 years that Queen Elizabeth ruled.
Queen Elizabeth = queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603
DefinitionGenerally this sense of Queen Elizabeth means:
queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated (1533-1603)
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Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt is remembered for saying: "Speak softly but carry a big stick."
Theodore Roosevelt = 26th President of the United States; broke anti-competitive U.S. cartels, hero of the Spanish-American War; and champion of the building of the Panama Canal (1858-1919)
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Constantinople
Turkey renamed Constantinople to Istanbul in 1930.
Constantinople = the city of Byzantium was renamed to Constantinople which was renamed to Istanbul, Turkey; Constantine made it the capital of the eastern Roman Empire in the fourth century
DefinitionGenerally Constantinople means:
the city of Byzantium was renamed to Constantinople which was renamed to Istanbul, Turkey; Constantine made it the capital of the Byzantium Empire (also known as the eastern Roman Empire) in the fourth century
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crusade
as in:
First Crusade to Jerusalem
Resentments date back to the Crusades.
Crusades = any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11th to 13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe invaded Muslims in the Holy Land in the Middle East
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Florence
Florence attracts millions of tourists each year.
Florence = city in central Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance from 14th to 16th centuries; provincial capital of Tuscany
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magistrate
The local magistrate insisted on a cash payment for the speeding ticket.
magistrate = judicial official
DefinitionGenerally magistrate means:
a judicial official — in the U.S. typically a judge for minor offenses or preliminary hearings
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dwell
as in:
It dwells in the forest.
The creature dwells in the forest.
dwells = lives in
DefinitionGenerally this sense of dwell means:
make one's home in; or to live in; or to stay (in a place)
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Mecca
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering Mecca.
Mecca = the birthplace of Muhammad and the holiest city of Islam (located in western Saudi Arabia)
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Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1986, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a national holiday in the United States.
Martin Luther King = In 1986, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a national holiday in the United States.
DefinitionGenerally Martin Luther King Jr. means:
inspiring U.S. civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of blacks; assassinated (1929-1968)
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Queen Victoria
The Victorian era is in reference to the 63 years that Queen Victoria ruled.
Queen Victoria = queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 when the monarchy had primarily symbolic power
DefinitionGenerally Queen Victoria means:
queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 when the monarchy had primarily symbolic power; the last Hanoverian ruler of England (1819-1901)
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Afrikaner
They have Afrikaner support.
Afrikaner = South Africans whose first language is Afrikaans — typically descendants of 17th century Dutch settlers; previously called Boers
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Henry Clay
Henry Clay's tombstone reads: "I know no North - no South - no East - no West."
Henry Clay = U.S. politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
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Ph.D
She is a research scientist who earned her Ph.D in physics.
Ph.D = a research doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation; the highest degree awarded in universities in many fields of study
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Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson's portrait appears on the twenty-dollar bill.
Andrew Jackson = 7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency (1767-1845)
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liege
He was her liege lord.
liege = a feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service
DefinitionGenerally liege means:
a feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service

or:

a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord
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Hong Kong
Governance of Hong Kong was transferred from Britain to China in 1997.
Hong Kong = one of the world's leading commercial centers on the coast of southern China; formerly an English colony; leased by China to Britain in 1842 and returned in 1997
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Knights Templar
The Knights Templar were the first significant international bankers.
Knights Templar = an order of medieval knights that existed for two centuries after the First Crusade and who helped to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims to Jerusalem when it was under Christian control
DefinitionGenerally Knights Templar means:
an order of medieval knights that existed for two centuries after the First Crusade who helped to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims to Jerusalem
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hippie
Many of the hippies who initiated the Summer of Love had moved on by the 1970s.
hippies = member of the counterculture that first became prevalent in the early 1960's in San Francisco — associated with long hair, illegal drugs, casual sex, and opposition to violence.
DefinitionGenerally hippie means:
member of the counterculture that first became prevalent in the early 1960's in San Francisco — associated with long hair, illegal drugs, casual sex, and opposition to violence.
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Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson's portrait is on the U.S. nickel (5 cent coin).
Thomas Jefferson = 3rd President of the US and primary writer of the Declaration of Independence
DefinitionGenerally Thomas Jefferson means:
3rd President of the US and primary writer of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)
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Tibet
The Dalai Lama is Tibet's leader-in-exile.
Tibet = an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China; located in the Himalayas
DefinitionGenerally Tibet means:
an autonomous region of China; located in the Himalayas

or (when the Government of Tibet in Exile and the Tibetan refugee community abroad refer to Tibet):  a much larger area consisting of three traditional provinces
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Christopher Columbus
The term "pre-Columbian" is in reference to Christopher Columbus.
Christopher Columbus = Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
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Euclid
Euclid's Elements served as main text for teaching geometry for over 2,000 years.
Euclid = Greek mathematician known as the Father of Geometry (3rd century BC)
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Frederick Douglass
The autobiography written by Frederick Douglass is still popular today.
Frederick Douglass = U.S. abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
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Richard III
Shakespeare's play, Richard III, is an unflattering depiction of his reign.
Richard III = King of England from 1483 to 1485; seized the throne from his nephew Edward V who was confined to the Tower of London and murdered; his reign ended when he was defeated by Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) at the battle of Bosworth Field (1452-1485)
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Malcolm X
Members of the Nation of Islam were convicted for assassinating Malcolm X.
Malcolm X = militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)
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Thomas More
The film, A Man for all Seasons is based on the life of Thomas More.
Thomas More = English statesman who accepted execution rather than take an oath against his beliefs; executed by Henry VIII; coined the word "utopia" (1478-1535)
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Benedict Arnold
To this day "Benedict Arnold" can be used as an American synonym for "traitor."
Benedict Arnold = U.S. general and traitor in the American Revolution; in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled (1741-1801)
DefinitionGenerally Benedict Arnold means:
general who betrayed the U.S. in the Revolutionary War and whose name is, to this day, synonymous with the word traitor (1741-1801)
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Bill Gates
Today, Bill Gates devotes most of his time to philanthropy.
Bill Gates = U.S. software entrepreneur who founded Microsoft, became the world's richest person while still in his 30s, and funded the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (b. 1955)
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Grand Canal
2 meanings

of Venice
We took a water bus on the Grand Canal in Venice.
Grand Canal = the most important canal in Venice, Italy — a famous route for tourists on gondolas
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of China
We saw only a little of it, but we took a tour boat on the Grand Canal from Beijing.
Grand Canal = longest canal in the world (about 1000 miles) in eastern China
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abdicate
as in:
abdicated responsibility
You can't abdicate responsibility.
abdicate = ignore
DefinitionGenerally this sense of abdicate means:
to ignore duties or obligations
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abolish
She is in favor of abolishing the death penalty.
abolishing = eliminating (doing away with)
DefinitionGenerally abolish means:
eliminate (do away with)
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accommodate
2 meanings
as in:
Each room can accommodate four
The lab can accommodate up to 30 students at one time.
accommodate = provide (or have the ability to provide) something desired or needed
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as in:
I will accommodate for your need
She accommodates different learning styles.
accommodates = adjust something to provide for a need
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accustomed
In the United States we're accustomed to forming our own opinion about the promises of advertisements and politicians.
accustomed = used to (have adapted to and have an expectation of)
DefinitionGenerally accustomed means:
psychologically or physically used to something
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acknowledge
She acknowledged that she might have forgotten.
acknowledged = admitted
DefinitionGenerally acknowledge means:
express recognition of someone or something; or admit something
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acquiesce
She is opposed, but will ultimately acquiesce to the will of the majority.
acquiesce = reluctantly comply
DefinitionGenerally acquiesce means:
reluctant or unenthusiastic compliance, consent, or agreement
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acquit
2 meanings
as in:
she was acquitted
It took the jury only 30 minutes to acquit her of the murder charge.
acquit = officially find "not guilty"
DefinitionGenerally this sense of acquit means:
officially find "not guilty" of criminal charges
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as in:
she acquitted herself well
Although they did not win, the team acquitted itself well and we were proud to have them represent us.
acquitted = handled oneself in a specified way
DefinitionGenerally this sense of acquit means:
to handle oneself in a specified way — which is typically in a positive way
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adjacent
We stayed in adjacent hotel rooms.
adjacent = side-x-side (very near)
DefinitionGenerally adjacent means:
very near — often directly beside
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advocate
2 meanings
as in:
to advocate
She advocates stricter gun control.
advocates = publicly supports
DefinitionGenerally this sense of advocate means:
to recommend or publicly support someone or something
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as in:
an advocate
She is a passionate advocate for children's welfare.
advocate = a person who publicly supports and works to advance a cause
DefinitionGenerally this sense of advocate means:
a person who publicly supports and works to advance a cause

or more rarely:

someone acting in the role of a defense lawyer in England's past and in some jurisdictions today
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agitate
Our goal is to agitate public unrest, so there will be a cry for change.
agitate = stir up (create or increase emotional unrest)
DefinitionGenerally agitate means:
to stir up — emotionally (such as anxiety) or physically (such as shaking)
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allegiance
We owe no allegiance to the outdated ideas of our political party.
allegiance = loyalty
DefinitionGenerally allegiance means:
loyalty to a person, group, or cause
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alliance
The Islamic governments formed an alliance to defeat Israel.
alliance = a group of countries, people, or organizations working for common goals
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allot
She allotted part of the yard for the dogs and part for a garden.
allotted = to give out — especially a share of something
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amiable
She seemed an ideal candidate—attractive, amiable, intelligent and energetic.
amiable = friendly and kindly
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anachronism
The printed version is an expensive anachronism from an earlier time.
anachronism = something out of place for it's time - typically something that belongs in the past
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anarchist
An anarchist group claimed responsibility for the explosion.
anarchist = someone who favors eliminating all government
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animosity
I was afraid she would be angry, but she responded without a hint of animosity.
animosity = hostile feeling
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annex
2 meanings
as in:
annexed the community
The county annexed the rural community where we live.
annexed = took territory
DefinitionGenerally this sense of annex means:
to take territory — such as a city making land outside of it a part of the city
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as in:
annex of the main building
The YMCA added an annex where younger children can play.
annex = an addition that extends a main building
DefinitionGenerally this sense of annex means:
an addition that extends a main building

or:

to attach something — especially to something larger or more important
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apparent
The effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the dry fields.
apparent = clear or obvious
DefinitionGenerally apparent means:
clear or obvious; or appearing as such but not necessarily so
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appease
The President is thought to have made the statement to appease the party faithful.
appease = satisfy or pacify (bring peace and calm among)
DefinitionGenerally appease means:
satisfy or pacify (make less angry or upset) — typically by giving something wanted
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apprehensive
She is apprehensive about her new job.
apprehensive = worried over possible misfortune
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archaic
When I first started reading Shakespeare, it seemed archaic.
archaic = so extremely old as to seem to belong to an earlier period
DefinitionGenerally archaic means:
so extremely old as to seem to belong to an earlier period; or obsolete
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archbishop
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the principal leader of the Church of England.
archbishop = a bishop of highest rank (in charge of other bishops and churches)
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assail
Serbian forces assailed Bosnian towns.
assailed = attacked
DefinitionGenerally assail means:
attack physically or verbally
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assault
I was assaulted by a man in a mask.
assaulted = attacked
DefinitionGenerally assault means:
to attack someone or something physically or verbally; or to threaten violence
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assert
2 meanings
as in:
asserted her opinion that...
The defense also asserts that the defendant has no previous record.
asserts = says (that something is true — especially something disputed)
DefinitionGenerally this sense of assert means:
to say that something is true — especially something disputed
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as in:
asserted her authority
She says women should assert themselves more.
assert = to be forceful in exercising rights
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