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Multiple Meanings
canon — as in:  a canonical requirement

Their actions violate the canon of proportional response.
an official or established rule or principle; or a collection of such rules or principles (often in reference to rules or principles of a church)
canon — as in:  the Shakespearean canon

There is much debate as to what should belong in today’s literary canon; or even if such a list can have any general validity.
an authoritative list of works or people — such as the complete works of an author or the saints of the Roman Catholic Church
canon — as in:  played a canon

Pachelbel’s Canon in D is the most relaxing music I know.
a melody that, after a short interval, is exactly repeated by a different instrument or voice to create competing melodic lines (a strict counterpoint)

Different Christian denominations vary slightly in the "books of the Bible" they recognize as divinely inspired. Similar situations arise in other religions. The accepted works by any religious body could be referred to as their canon.

More rarely, canon references a dignitary attached to a cathedral, a collegiate church, or certain religious orders. It can also reference an unchanging part of a religious service in which bread and wine are consecrated for communion.

Canonization refers to the act of adding someone to the canon (list) of recognized saints of a Christian religious body.
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