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Multiple Meanings

She confounded her critics.
to confuse or cause to be unable to think clearly


to refute or frustrate

Much more rarely, confound can mean
  • to mistake one thing for another — as in: do not confound confidence with correctness.
  • to make something worse — as in:  She confounded the problem by painting without sanding.
  • to express anger — as in: Confound it! Will I ever get this thing to work?
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